Netherlands - Discover the Beauty of Windmills and Tulips

The Netherlands, known in Dutch as Nederland, is the largest state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Most of its territory is located in Western Europe, with three islands in the Caribbean Sea. It is bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east. Its capital is Amsterdam, and the Dutch city of Rotterdam is one of the largest ports in Europe. The Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy and a densely populated country. The majority of its land lies below sea level. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The Netherlands is also part of the Schengen Area and the Benelux community, along with Belgium and Luxembourg. Furthermore, it is home to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, and Europol.


The northern provinces of the Netherlands (South Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Groningen, and Friesland) were part of the Union of Utrecht. On July 26, 1581, these provinces declared their independence from King Philip II of Spain. The independence of the Dutch provinces was recognized in the Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648. However, the areas to the south of these provinces, including the state of Flanders, remained part of the Kingdom. Later, Belgium gained independence in this region, and after this event, the terms "Northern Dutch" and "Southern Dutch" were used to refer to the Dutch communities. The Congress of Vienna briefly united North and South Holland under the name of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but the Southern Dutch had already declared their independence in 1830, forming Belgium.

The Netherlands remained neutral during World War I, but it was occupied by Germany during World War II. On May 10, 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium and the Netherlands. In 1942, Japan invaded one of the Dutch colonies, Indonesia, which later declared its independence.


The country is divided into two main regions by three rivers: the Rhine River and its major tributaries, and the Waal and Meuse rivers. As these rivers historically formed the borders between feudal lords, they have led to some cultural differences.


Binary code Triple code Phone code Population
NL NLD 31 17280000


name native name Binary code Triple code
Dutch Nederlands nl nld


name Code symbol
Euro EUR
Belgium Germany

Some neighboring countries to Netherlands