Sweden - Unveiling the Allure of Stunning Landscapes and Rich History
Sweden, officially known as the Kingdom of Sweden, is a country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. It shares borders with Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east. Sweden is also connected to Denmark by the Öresund Bridge in the south. The country covers an area of approximately 450,295 square kilometers, making it the third-largest country in the European Union in terms of area. The total population of the country is 10.4 million people. However, population density increases rapidly towards the south. About 85% of the population lives in urban areas. The capital of Sweden is Stockholm, which is also the largest city in the country. Two million people live in the capital, and 1.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Sweden is a parliamentary system governed by a constitutional monarchy. As an economically advanced country, Sweden ranks first in The Economist's Democracy Index and seventh in the United Nations Human Development Index. It has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995.
Sweden has been an independent and unified state since medieval times. The first modern central government was established in the 16th century when Gustav Vasa became king. In the 17th century, the state expanded to establish the Swedish Empire. However, outside the Scandinavian countries, most of the places opened in the 18th and 19th centuries were lost. Russia took control of the eastern half of Sweden, which is still part of Finland today. The last war Sweden participated in was in 1814. This war began when Sweden forced its neighbor Norway to form a single state. The existing union lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has pursued a policy of peace and nonalignment in foreign relations and has remained neutral in most wars.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Sweden witnessed a significant increase in population preservation. Between 1750 and 1850, the population of Sweden doubled. According to some experts, Swedish immigration to the United States was the most important factor in protecting the Swedish people from famine and riots, especially in the 1880s. More than one percent of the population gradually emigrated to the United States. In return, Sweden remained poor. The country relied heavily on agriculture compared to other European countries that began to develop due to industry, especially Denmark. Many people saw America as a better place during this period, and over a million Swedes emigrated to America. At the beginning of the 20th century, the number of Swedes living in Chicago, USA, was larger than the population of Gothenburg, the second-largest city in Sweden. Additionally, many Swedish citizens also settled in the Midwestern United States, particularly in Minnesota and Delaware. It is known that Swedes settled outside the United States in Canada and Argentina.
Although Sweden is located at the same latitude as Siberia, it enjoys a moderate climate. The four seasons and moderate weather events are noticeable throughout the year in the country. Sweden is divided into three different climatic regions: the oceanic climate in the southern region, the humid continental climate in the central region, and the subarctic climate in the northern region. Sweden is warmer and milder than most places at the same latitude or even lower latitudes. This is due to maritime currents in the Gulf Stream. For example, the central and southern parts of Sweden are warmer than most parts of Russia and Canada. On the other hand, the fact that it is located at high latitudes makes the length of daylight in the country highly diverse. While the sun never sets during summer in the country within the Arctic Circle, it does not rise at all during winter. Eighteen hours of daylight are observed in June in the capital Stockholm, also located in the southeast. Most parts of the country receive between 1600 and 2000 hours of daylight annually.
Temperature varies greatly from north to south in the country. The southern and central regions experience warm summers and cold winters. In these regions, air temperatures in summer rise to an average of 20 to 25 degrees Celsius and drop to 12 to 15 degrees Celsius. Similarly, in these regions, average temperatures range from -4 to 2 degrees Celsius in winter. In the northern parts of the country, with cool summers and long, harsh winters, temperatures generally stay below freezing from September to May. Summer temperatures rise to about 25 degrees Celsius throughout the year, including the north, due to occasional heatwaves observed throughout Sweden.
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