Saudi Arabia - The Unique Jewel in the Middle East

Saudi Arabia is an Arab country located in the southwestern part of Asia, and it is the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula, covering an area of 2,149,690 square kilometers. It is bordered by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba to the west and the Arabian Gulf to the east. Its neighboring countries include Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Jordan, Yemen, and Bahrain.

Saudi Arabia is considered the religious center of the Islamic world as it houses the two holiest sites in Islam: the Holy Kaaba in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina. Millions of Muslims from all corners of the earth visit these sacred places annually to perform their religious rituals.

History and Naming:

The name "Saudi Arabia" is attributed to Saud bin Muhammad Al-Muqrin, the eldest ancestor of the ruling family, who was a ruler of Diriyah.

The roots of Saudi Arabia trace back to the early civilizations that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula, and the region has played a prominent role throughout history as a trading center and the birthplace of Islam.

The establishment of Saudi Arabia can be traced back to the beginnings of the city of Diriyah. Imam Muhammad bin Saud, the founder of the first Saudi state, belonged to the Banu Hanifa tribe, which had established its first state before Islam in the Al-Arid valley, known as the Wadi Hanifa. The Banu Hanifa embraced Islam.

During the reign of the Ukhaydirids in the mid-3rd century AH (9th century AD), the Banu Hanifa dispersed throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Some settled in the area of Al-Izdah in Najd, where some members of the Banu Hanifa established the city of Diriyah. The head of the Al-Muraydi family, Minaa bin Murayd, moved with his family from eastern Arabia to Al-Arid in Najd, invited by his cousin, Ibn Dar'i, the ruler of Hajr and Al-Juzah. Minaa and his family settled in these two places, and Minaa established a town named "Al-Diriyah" after the Dari'a (shields) worn by its inhabitants.

The Rabia bin Minaa family continued to rule Diriyah from that year until Saud bin Muhammad bin Muqrin took power in 1132 AH. After his death in 1137 AH, Zaid bin Mirkhan ruled for a period of less than two years. After him, Prince Muhammad bin Saud took power in 1139 AH (1725 AD) and led the country into a new era in the region's history. He succeeded in establishing an influential state. In 1157 AH (1744 AD), the first Saudi state was established in Diriyah, led by Imam Muhammad bin Saud. The first Saudi state came to an end in 1233 AH (1818 AD) due to the campaigns sent by the Ottoman Empire.

However, the people of the desert and the city remained loyal to the Al Saud family. Not more than two years after the end of the first Saudi state, the leaders from Al Saud family reappeared to re-establish the Saudi state. Their first attempt was in 1235 AH/1820 AD when Imam Mishari bin Saud attempted to regain control of the Saudi rule in Diriyah, but it lasted for a short period of just a few months. This was followed by a successful attempt led by Imam Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud in 1240 AH/1824 AD, which led to the establishment of the second Saudi state, with Riyadh as its capital.


The climate of Saudi Arabia varies from one region to another due to differences in its terrain. Most of the country experiences a desert climate, except for the southwestern region where the climate is different. The country, in general, has hot daytime temperatures with relatively cooler nights.

Rainfall in Saudi Arabia is relatively scarce except for the southwestern highlands, where heavy seasonal rains occur.

Famous Places to Visit:

  • The Holy Mosque in Mecca
  • The Prophet's Mosque in Medina
  • Jeddah Fountain
  • Dammam Corniche
  • Mount Uhud
  • Mount Arafat
  • Hira Cave
  • Beit Nasif Palace and Museum
  • Dolphin Village Entertainment
  • Shallah Waterfall Entertainment
  • Saudi National Museum
  • Sanafir Island
  • Tiran Island
  • Okaz Market
  • Musmak Palace
  • Kingdom Tower
  • Tuwaiq Mountain
  • Sharm Abhur
  • Lujb Valley
  • Madain Saleh
  • Bab Makkah


Binary code Triple code Phone code Population
SA SAU 966 34218000


name native name Binary code Triple code
Arabic العربية ar ara


name Code symbol
Saudi riyal SAR ر.س
Kuwait Oman Qatar United Arab Emirates

Some neighboring countries to Saudi Arabia