Kuwait - A Captivating Country in the Arabian Gulf
Kuwait is a country located in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, along the coast of the Arabian Gulf. It is bordered by Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south. The name of the country comes from the word "Akwat," which means "castle on the water" in Arabic. The population of the country, which covers an area of 17,818 square kilometers, is approximately 2.9 million people according to estimates in 2020.
Name and History:
The ancient Greeks built the first settlements in the region in the 4th century BC. It came under Parthian rule in 123 BC. In 123, it was captured by the Sasanian Empire and began to be called Hajar. In the early 18th century, when Arab tribes settled in the area, the office of the Sheikh of Kuwait was established, laying the foundations of present-day Kuwait. In the 19th century, Kuwait, which was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire alongside settlements in the Arabian Peninsula, achieved semi-independence under the guarantee and control of the British through an agreement made with the British Empire in 1899. Near the end of the 1930s, rich oil reserves were discovered in the country.
The United Kingdom left in 1961, and Kuwait gained full independence. After this date, oil production in the country increased significantly. In 1990, it was occupied by its neighbor, Iraq. The occupation, which lasted for seven months, ended with the intervention of the coalition forces led by the United States. As the Iraqi forces withdrew from Kuwait, they set fire to 773 oil wells, causing a major environmental disaster and damaging the country's economy. After the war, the country was restructured.
The capital of Kuwait, which is governed by a parliamentary monarchy system, is Kuwait City, bearing the same name as the country. In the state that ranks fifth in the world in terms of oil reserves, oil constitutes 95% of exports and about 80% of the country's income. Being the seventh richest country in the world in terms of gross domestic product, Kuwait is the 31st country with the highest Human Development Index. Kuwait is classified as a high-income country according to the World Bank.
Geography and Region:
Kuwait is located in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula and is among the smallest continental countries in the world. The Arabian desert covers most of the country's unevenly structured lands. There is a slight difference of 306 meters between the highest point in the country and its average elevation. In Kuwait, which includes nine islands, while there are no settlements on the other islands except for Failaka Island, Bubiyan is the largest island in the country with an area of 860 square kilometers and is located at an elevation of 2,380 meters. It is connected by a long bridge. Green lands are found in patches along 449 km of the country's coastline, most of which are suitable for agriculture.
In the Burgan Field in Kuwait, one of the richest countries in the world in terms of its oil fields, 70 million gallons (1.1 × 1010 m3) of total extracted oil are obtained in the country. During the oil fires in Kuwait in 1991, more than 500 oil lakes were formed all over the country, spreading over an area of approximately 35.7 square kilometers. The eastern and southeastern parts of the country became uninhabitable due to pollution. The oil spills resulting from the Gulf War severely affected the country's marine resources.
Spring, which begins in March, is warm despite occasional rainfall. The winds blowing from the northwest are cool in autumn and winter. Warm weather prevails in spring and summer. The winds blowing from the southeast are generally hot and humid and are most pronounced between July and October. The hot and dry winds blowing from the same direction prevail in the spring and early summer. The winds blowing from the northwest, known as the Shamal, are effective in June and July and cause sandstorms.
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