Poland - Where History and Culture Unite
Poland, known in Polish as "Polska," is a country located in Central Europe. It is bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic to the southwest, Slovakia to the south, Russia and Lithuania to the northeast, Belarus to the east, Ukraine to the southeast, and the Baltic Sea to the north. With an area of 312,696 square kilometers, it ranks as the ninth-largest country in Europe and the sixty-ninth in the world. Poland is the thirty-sixth most populous country in the world, with approximately 38.4 million inhabitants.
Slavic tribes are believed to have settled in the Vistula Basin around 2000 BCE. In the 9th and 10th centuries AD, the Piast dynasty dominated the region, and the ruler Mieszko I embraced Christianity in 966 AD, laying the foundations for the Polish state. Poland faced the Roman Empire's eastward expansion, and its task was to maintain its independence, leading to a 200-year struggle. Poland later came under the rule of the Roman Empire in the 12th century, losing some of its territories.
In the 13th century, the Mongol raids that began in 1241 caused significant destruction and led to the collapse of its infrastructure. By the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Tatars seized some areas around the Black Sea, disrupting Poland's eastern trade route. Simultaneously, the Roman Empire incited the Teutonic Knights against Poland, and the Polish borders faced raids from Russia and the Ottomans.
Sigismund I (1506-1548) repelled most of the Russian attacks and signed a peace treaty in 1533 to halt the continuous Ottoman invasion. In 1569, a constitution was formulated, establishing a united and independent kingdom. Before the Bolsheviks came to power with the October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, Poland had gained independence. Lenin confirmed its independence and respected the right of nations to self-determination.
However, Poland launched an offensive to take advantage of the Russian Civil War and gain territory, despite having achieved independence through the Soviet government. It invaded Ukraine and Belarus, starting the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1921). Poland was defeated with the support of Western powers by the Red Army. In 1921, it drew its eastern borders based on the Riga Treaty.
Poland experiences hot and rainy summers and cold, long winters. The average temperature in June during the summer season ranges between 18°C and 20°C, while the average temperature in January during the winter season ranges between -5°C and -2°C.
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