Explore the Beauty of France - The Charming French Republic
France, or officially the French Republic, has an area of 674,843 square kilometers and a population of 66.99 million. It extends from the Mediterranean Sea in the south to the English Channel, the North Sea in the north, from the Rhine River in the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
France is a unitary state with a semi-presidential system of administration, and the principles and ideals of the country are articulated in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. France's European neighbors are Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Monaco, and Andorra. Corsica is only 12 km from the Italian island of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea and also belongs to France. It is also bordered by Brazil and Suriname via French Guiana and the Netherlands Antilles via the island of Saint Martin in its outer provinces. France is connected to the United Kingdom by the Channel Tunnel, which runs under the sea in the English Channel.
France has been one of the leading countries in international relations around the world since the second half of the seventeenth century. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, France created one of the largest colonial empires of the period. During these periods, France's frontiers extended from West Africa to Southeast Asia, leaving distinct marks on the culture and politics of the societies in the regions it affected. It has a developed economy with a nominal GDP of sixth place in the world and purchasing power parity of eighth place, and is among the developed countries. France is the most visited country in the world, hosting nearly 82 million tourists annually, excluding those who stay in the country for less than 24 hours, including those on business trips.
France is one of the founding members of a political and economic organization called the European Union, which is the largest in area among the member states of the union. The country is also a founding member of the United Nations, a participant in the Francophone G8 Summit, the Latin Union and NATO. It is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It is a major nuclear power with 360 active warheads and 59 nuclear power plants.
Name and History:
The borders of present-day France are almost the same as those of ancient Gaul, once the home of the Celtic Greeks. When the Roman emperor Julius Caesar captured Gaul in the first century BC, the people of Gaul gradually adopted Roman culture and the Roman language. Later, this language changed within itself over time and formed the foundations of modern French. Christianity first appeared on the lands of France in the second and third centuries A.D., and spread so rapidly in the next two centuries that Saint Jerome wrote in his writings that Gaul was the only region "free from heresy".
In the fourth century AD, the borders of eastern Gaul along the Rhine were ruled by Germanic tribes. The most influential of these communities was the Franks, who also gave France the ancient name of Francis. The name France used today comes from the name of the area where the Capetian kings ruled around Paris where the feudal lordship was located. After the fall of the Roman Empire among the Germanic tribes that spread across Europe, the Franks were the first to convert to Catholicism, not the Aryans. For this reason, France was given the title of "eldest daughter of the Church", and the Franks called themselves "the best Christians of France" accordingly.
As a separate state, the history of France began with the Treaty of Verdun of 843, with the division of the Carolingian Empire into the Kingdom of East Francia, Kingdom of West Francia, and Kingdom of Middle Francia. The kingdom of the West Franks almost covered the territory of present-day France, and indeed the foundations of modern France were founded on this kingdom. The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until the coronation of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, as King of France in 987. His descendants and the Valois and Bourbon dynasties also ensured unity in the country through a series of gradual wars.
Geography and climate:
The largest part of the country is located within the European borders, called Metropolitan France in the western part of the continent. But France has many provinces and special regions in a wide geographic area that stretches across North America, the Caribbean, South America, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and Antarctica. those that belong directly to France are the overseas provinces; The partner countries that are independent among themselves and have agreements with France on defense are called the Overseas Communities. The area of French territory on the European continent is 547,030 square kilometres. With this area, France is the largest country in the European Union by area, differing little from Spain. The territory of France, the western and northern coasts of the plains in the southeastern Alps mountain range extending to the interior in different regions known as the Central Massif region and high in the Pyrenees in the southwest of France, have different forms of terrain. Mont Blanc is located in the Alps and is the highest point in Western Europe and the European Union, with an altitude of 4,807 metres. It is located on the border between France and Italy. Continental France is also intertwined by a large and complex stream of streams such as the Loire, Garonne, Seine and Rhone. The lowest point in the Camargue Delta is two meters below sea level. Corsica, with an area of 8,680 square kilometres, is 128 nautical miles from Nice on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 11 million square kilometres, France also has the second largest exclusive economic zone in the world after the United States.
France is located west of mainland Europe, between 41st and 51st latitude north. It is dominated by a temperate climate in the northwest and a Mediterranean climate prevails in the southeastj. The western parts are under the influence of the oceanic climate and receive large amounts of precipitation. In these regions, winters are warm and summers are cool. Indoors, there are hot, windy summers and cold but dry winters. The climate of the Alps and other higher parts of the country sees temperatures below zero at certain times of the year, and the snow that falls stays on the ground for six months.
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